What is COVID-19?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause illness in humans and animals. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered coronavirus causes an infectious disease known as coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19. This virus first emerged in China in December 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide.

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 include cough, fever, shortness of breath, muscle aches, sore throat, unexplained loss of smell or taste, diarrhea, and headache. Symptoms can be mild at first, but may become more intense over 5 to 7 days for some people. Cough and shortness of breath may worsen if pneumonia develops and it is important to seek medical attention if these symptoms occur.

Keep in mind that it is possible to have COVID-19 while experiencing minimal symptoms or even none at all. About 80% of people infected with coronavirus recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. However, 15% of people develop severe symptoms that require hospitalization and another 5% become critically ill. People aged 65 and older and those with an underlying medical condition, such as high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes, or cancer, are at higher risk of developing serious illness. However, anyone can become seriously ill from COVID-19. People of all ages who experience fever, cough, difficulty breathing, or chest pain should call their healthcare provider immediately.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html

World Health Organization (WHO). Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses

Copyright © 2020 | COVID Frontline | All Rights Reserved | Website by Divigner

Patient Toolkit

The COVID FRONTLINE Patient Toolkit is a resource center for patients who have been diagnosed with or who are interested in learning about COVID-19. Choose from the options below to learn more.

Clinical Toolkit

The COVID-19 Clinical Toolkit is an online tool that aims to provide clinicians with up-to-date information on the presentation, prognosis, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies for COVID-19. Click on one of the options below to learn more.

This activity is provided by Med Learning Group. This activity is co-provided by Ultimate Medical Academy/CCM.
This activity is supported by educational grants from AbbVie, Astellas, Genentech, Merck & Co., Inc., and Pfizer.

Copyright © 2019 | COVID Frontline | All Rights Reserved | Website by Divigner

Updates in the Treatment and Prevention of COVID-19​

Emergency use authorization for casirivimab/imdevimab in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19

The combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab (previously known as REGN-COV2) has been authorized for emergency use for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (≥12 years of age and ≥40 kg) who are at high risk for progressing to severe COVID-19 or hospitalization.1

Interim results from 275 nonhospitalized patients in a placebo-controlled trial of casirivimab plus imdevimab found that the combination therapy reduced viral load, with a greater effect in patients whose immune response had not yet been initiated or who had a high viral load at baseline. Patients who received casirivimab/imdevimab required fewer medical visits for COVID-19 than patients who received placebo (3% vs 6%, respectively). Among patients who were serum antibody-negative at baseline, 15% in the placebo group and 6% in the treatment group required COVID-19-related medical care.2

Baricitinib in combination with remdesivir authorized for emergency use in hospitalized patients

Baricitinib, in combination with remdesivir, is authorized for emergency use in adult and pediatric patients ≥2 years of age hospitalized for COVID-19 who require supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).3

A recent trial of 1033 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 found that baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time (7 days vs 8 days, respectively; P= .03). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination therapy and 18 days with the control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51). The addition of baricitinib to remdesivir was associated with 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 compared with remdesivir alone.4

 

References 

  1. Emergency use authorization (EUA) of casirivimab and imdevimab. Available at fda.gov/media/143892/download Accessed 12/23/2020.
  2. Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, et al. REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;Dec 17:Epub ahead of print. Available at nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2035002Accessed 12/23/2020.
  3. Emergency use authorization (EUA) of baricitinib. Available at fda.gov/media/143823/download Accessed 12/23/2020.
  4. Kalil AC, Patterson TF, Mehta AK, et al. Baricitinib plus remdesivir for hospitalized adults with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;Dec 11:Epub ahead of print. Available at nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2031994 Accessed 12/23/2020.